As described by Northrop, 1975 and Northrop, 1981 and extensively reviewed elsewhere (Cleland, 2005, Cook, 1998, Cook and Cleland, 2007 and Kohen
and Limbach, 2006) even kinetic steps that are not rate limiting can decrease the observed KIE from the intrinsic value. This behavior is quantitatively expressed by Eq. (1), where KIEobs is the measured KIE, KIEint is the intrinsic isotope effect resulting from the cleavage of the labeled bond, Cf and Cr are the forward and reverse commitments to catalysis ( Cook, 1991, Cook and Cleland, 2007, Kohen, 2003, Kohen and Limbach, 2006 and Northrop, 1975), respectively and EIE is the equilibrium isotope effect. Naturally, http://www.selleckchem.com/products/MS-275.html Cf and Cr could be complex expressions that depend on the system under study and the conditions of the measurement. equation(1) KIEobs=KIEint+Cf+CrEIE1+Cf+Cr The masking of the KIE can sometimes be reduced by using pre-steady state kinetics (Fierke et al., 1987 and Loveridge et al., 2012), changing the pH or temperature (Bahnson et al., 1993, Cook and Cleland, 1981a,
Cook and Cleland, 1981b and Kohen et al., 1999), using an alternate substrate (Bahnson et al., 1993, Gadda et al., 2000 and Kohen et al., 1999), performing the measurements at different saturation levels of the second substrate (Fan and Gadda, 2005 and Hong et al., Proteasome inhibitor 2007), or switching to methodologies that further expose the intrinsic KIE (Cook, 1991 and Sen et al., 2011). When presenting values of measured KIEs it is critical to report
whether the data represent intrinsic or observed values (i.e., KIEobs or KIEint). This is true even if the experimental questions being addressed do not require rigorous controls to ensure that the data reflect solely the effects of isotopic substitution on the kinetic step of interest, as different levels of commitment can expose interesting mechanistic features such as whether a reaction is concerted Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) or stepwise (Cook et al., 1980 and Hermes et al., 1982). Additionally, a deuterium KIE is commonly measured to determine whether enzymatic C H bond cleavage is at least partly rate limiting in the overall catalytic cycle. In such an application, a value significantly greater than unity is sufficient to warrant a positive conclusion even if this value is decreased relative to its intrinsic value. Yet, failing to report the value as observed may mislead readers into thinking the result represents the intrinsic value on bond cleavage. This could then lead to wasted efforts by other research groups who may want to use the data as a starting point for further investigations, and particularly mislead theoreticians trying to reproduce this value by computer-based simulation of only the bond-cleavage step.