Again the mechanism for enhanced symbiotum tolerance was via reac

Again the mechanism for enhanced symbiotum tolerance was via reactive

oxygen species which were reduced in endophyte-viral symbiotum compared to E- hosts or E + hosts without the viral endosymbiont (Márquez et al. 2007). Additional examples of putative mutualistic endophyte-plant interactions include work by Zhang and Nan (2010). Seedling growth was enhanced by endophyte colonization of Elymus sp. and comparisons of this host across populations with different levels of aridity indicated a positive correlation between endophyte presence, drought, and antioxidant production. Zhang and Nan (2010) concluded the increased seedling growth in response to drought resulted at least in part from higher antioxidant selleck activity. They found a positive effect of endophyte colonization on biomass, relative water content, and proline concentrations under low water conditions and essentially,Hydrochloride-Salt.html no effect of endophyte under conditions of high water (Zhang and Nan 2007). Few papers focused on a potential role of reactive oxygen species and/or antioxidant activity in endophyte

mediated plant resistance to pathogens (Table 1). For example, when tomatoes susceptible to Verticillium wilt were simultaneously inoculated with a virulent and avirulent fungal strain the virulent strain was unable to produce as much biomass in planta but continued to successfully stunt the plant’s growth (Shittu et al. 2009). When the avirulent

strain was the only colonizer of the host, plant growth was significantly enhanced. Associated with this result was increased expression of ACY-241 ic50 signaling genes potentially responsible for increased reactive oxygen species activity and subsequent increases in antioxidant activity (Shittu et al. 2009). As with the root endophytes, benefits from shoot endophyte colonization do not come without associated costs and disadvantages Demeclocycline to the host plant (Ahlholm et al. 2000; Cheplick and Faeth 2009). For example, Hahn et al. 2008 evaluated E + and E- host response to 26 days of drought and found only plant genotype significantly affected host physiological responses. Proline and alkaloid production was not significantly different in E + plants exposed to drought versus adequate watering; however, there was a 30% increase in the baseline levels of proline in E + compared with E- plants. It is important to note, increased proline did not correlate with increased plant biomass. Nonetheless, water uptake was significantly higher in E + plants under both control and drought treatments. Whether this leads to increased host survival was not tested. Another example of low or no host response to endophyte colonization was reported by Bonnet et al. (2000). They looked at host vegetative growth and antioxidant activity in response to multiple levels of zinc, including toxic levels.

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