A significant main effect was also identified for passing side [F(1, 108) = 53.85, p < Wnt inhibitor 0.001] with dominant side skill execution found to be superior to the non-dominant side across all trials (p = 0.013). No interactions between passing side and time were found [F(5, 108) = 1.899, p = 0.1]. Table 1 Accuracy, out of 10 attempts (20 total per trial), for each of dominant and non-dominant passing sides on the first, fifth and twelve familiarisation trials. 1st Trial 5th Trial a 12th Trial a Dominant 7.3 ± 0.8 9.0 ± 0.7 9.0 ± 0.4 Non-dominant b 5.7 ± 0.8
8.3 ± 0.8 8.2 ± 0.7 Data presented as mean ± SD. a significantly different from the 1st trial (p < 0.001), b significantly different from the dominant side (p = 0.013) Placebo non-sleep deprived versus familiarisation Placebo administration
on non-sleep deprived days did not produce a significantly different performance result to that seen in the last familiarisation trial [F(1, 36) = 0.00, p = 1.0], but a significant main effect was identified for passing side skill execution, this being consistently higher on the dominant side than the non-dominant side [F(1, 36) = 22.737, p < 0.001]. No significant interactions were identified for these variables [F(1, 36) = 0.00, p = 1.0]. Placebo see more versus creatine or caffeine on dominant passing side Repeated analyses revealed significant main effects for treatment condition [F(4, 90) = 19.303, p < 0.001], sleep state [F(1, 90) = 19.472, p < 0.001] and their interactions [F(4, 90) = 7.978, p < 0.001] on the dominant passing side (Figure 1). All of the caffeine and creatine doses produce a significant enhancement in skill performance when compared to placebo administration (p < 0.001). In the placebo condition, passing skill performance was found to be superior in the non-sleep deprived than the sleep deprived trial (p < 0.001). Figure 1 Effects of sleep deprivation and acute supplementations on passing accuracy (dominant side). The mean ± SD is displayed for accuracy out of 10 passes on the dominant side (20 passes total per trial) for the 10 subjects under different treatment conditions (placebo; 1 or 5 mg/kg caffeine, 50 or
100 mg/kg creatine) either in non-sleep deprived or sleep deprived states. Dominant was chosen by the subjects as the side they believed showed selleck compound library better Quinapyramine passing accuracy. All subjects completed 20 repetitions of the passing skill per trial, alternating passing sides (10 on dominant side). With placebo treatment sleep deprivation was associated with a significant fall in performance (a) (p < 0.001) compared to non-sleep deprivation. The 50 and 100 mg/kg creatine and 1 and 5 mg/kg caffeine doses were all associated with a significantly better performance (b) (p < 0.001) than the placebo conditions. Placebo versus creatine or caffeine on non-dominant passing side On the non-dominant passing side (Figure 2), significant main effects were identified for the treatment conditions [F(4, 90) = 14.