A recent study of physicians’ attitudes in Thailand, India, and Pakistan showed that it is the doctor’s reluctance to inject immunoglobulins check details into wounds that is at least partly responsible for worldwide treatment failures (I. Nuchprayoon and colleagues, unpublished data). International tourists often refuse to have their bite wounds injected with immunoglobulin at an animal bite clinic. All these make it evident that more education and better motivation of health care providers and travelers are urgently needed. Human and equine immunoglobulins have some limitations leading to a search for replacements. Specific
monoclonal antibodies provide a promising future approach. They can kill rabies virus as effectively as human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG). Studies are now conducted to evaluate the efficacy of rabies monoclonal antibody cocktails in comparison with HRIG. Results showed equivalence, and it is very likely that these products will become eventually
available. They may replace HRIG but whether FG-4592 supplier they will be more affordable in a developing country remains to be seen. We are far from controlling the canine vector in most endemic countries. In South and Southeast Asia, it is the stray dog but, surprisingly, in China it is owned pet dogs that are the major cause of over 2,000 annual human rabies deaths. It is not yet generally recognized or accepted that rabies can be controlled only by sustainable dog vaccination, responsible pet ownership, and serious population control of stray dogs. Dog control and regular vaccination are expensive and may even conflict with some cultural and even religious beliefs. Amobarbital Rather than confront this issue, it is easy for the public health official
to cite other “more urgent” demands on funding. Effective dog control and rabies elimination also require legislation and enforcement. Rabies control was accomplished in this manner in Europe, North America, Australia, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Singapore. Sadly, not one additional country in Asia has been declared rabies free by WHO during the past three decades, although we have the tools to do so. Worse, several previously rabies-free Asian regions have new ongoing canine rabies epidemics. Flores and Bali islands now report over 200 human rabies deaths in the last 4 years. Survival of an American teenager with rabies raised hopes that rabies is treatable using a complex aggressive protocol with induced deep anesthesia and several unproven drugs. This treatment has since become known as the “Milwaukee Protocol.” Many efforts to duplicate it have failed. No evidence of viral RNA in saliva, skin biopsies, or body fluids could be detected in the few survivors with rabies, irrespective of whether they had been subjected to the Milwaukee Protocol or had only received supportive care.