65 [95% CI: 1 32-2 40]) Table 2 shows the distribution


65 [95% CI: 1.32-2.40]). Table 2 shows the distribution

of key covariates from children/adolescents and their putative associations with the two outcomes under analysis. Table 3 summarizes findings on caregivers’ anxiety and depression assessment, screening for alcohol and other substance abuse, and scores related to quality of life and their putative association with the two outcomes among children/adolescents. Clinically relevant covariates associated with the outcomes at the level of p < 0.25 ZD1839 manufacturer in the univariate analyses were included in the model. All intermediary steps and the final model were controlled for age. Multivariable logistic regression showed that caregivers who did not abuse alcohol and other drugs (OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.27-0.89), as well as those who came to the pharmacy for cART refill with

median interval less than 33 days (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) were independently associated with viral load < 50 copies/mL among children and adolescents; whereas caregivers with anxiety score less than 8 at HAD (OR = 2.57; 95% CI: 1.27-5.19) and children who had HIV diagnosis as a result of family screening (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.12-4.50) were found to be Palbociclib in vivo independently associated with no missed doses of ART in the last three days. At study admission, over half (59%) of the children and half of the adolescents had viral suppression, whereas roughly 93% of children and 77% of adolescents reported no missed doses of ART in the last three days, which suggests both caregivers for the Dynein children and adolescents tended to overestimate their actual adherence.

It is very unlikely that such pronounced discrepancies between self-reported adherence and viral load is, above all, due to secondary to errors in prescription and/or the emergence of drug resistance over short periods of time. The study was performed in referral centers, where patients were managed by experienced physicians and multidisciplinary health teams, with full access to a comprehensive portfolio of ARV medicines, at no cost at the point of delivery. The present results were comparable to other recent Brazilian studies.11 and 12 Filho et al. interviewed 101 adolescents in Rio de Janeiro regarding missed doses of cART in the last three days and observed that 80% were adherent to treatment. Ernesto et al. studied 108 children and adolescents in Campinas, and interviewed them regarding the use of cART in the last 24 h and the last seven days, as well as checked their pharmacy records. The authors found that 54.6% of the study population could be defined as non-adherent, considering at least one of these outcomes. There is no gold standard with respect to the proper measurement of adherence, for either adults or children/adolescents.

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