3c); while 47% of pilA/1497/oxpG/1777-MAΔ cells had

3c); while 47% of pilA/1497/oxpG/1777-MAΔ cells had Dapagliflozin one or more pilus-like filaments, only 9% of pilA/1497/oxpG/1777/0326-MAΔ cells produced a filament. Because the disruption of multiple pseudopilin genes, along with the hypothetical gene GSU1497, inhibited filament production, it appears likely that the encoded proteins comprise,

or are required for the production of, the filaments produced by the pilAΔ and pilA-MAΔ mutants. Further studies are underway in our laboratory to further characterize the specific roles of the pseudopilin genes in filament production. The genes involved in the production of the rare filaments associated with the quintuple mutant ΔpilA/1497/oxpG/1777/0326Δ also remain to be identified. The deletion of pilA in the DL-1 strain slightly inhibited

the attachment of cells to glass (Reguera et al., 2007) and had no impact on attachment to graphite (Nevin et al., 2009). In a similar manner, the deletion of pilA in strain MA did not affect attachment to glass culture tubes (Fig. 4a) or coverslips (Fig. 4b, c). Both strains formed morphologically similar biofilms on glass coverslips with pillars over 40 μm in height, and cells covered 77.3±9.4% (MA strain) or 86.0±3.0% (PilA-deficient MA) of the surfaces (Fig. 4b, c). However, the Ribociclib quadruple pilA/1497/oxpG/1777Δ mutant and the quintuple pilA/1497/oxpG/1777/0326Δ mutant were defective in attachment (Fig. 4a, d). The quintuple mutant formed a single monolayer of cells covering only 1.5±0.7% of the glass surface (Fig. 4d). These findings suggest that one or more of the non-PilA filaments are important for attachment, at least in the absence of PilA. These results demonstrate that pilin-like filaments of G. sulfurreducens can be comprised of proteins other than PilA. Although these filaments look similar, the fact that they are

composed of different proteins suggests that other properties may not be the same. For example, the conductivity of filaments, believed to be composed of PilA, is considered to allow PilA pili to act as conduits for extracellular electron transfer to Fe(III) Idoxuridine oxides (Reguera et al., 2005) and electrodes (Reguera et al., 2006; Nevin et al., 2009). Whether any of the other filaments detected in this study are also conductive is not known. The finding that the MA strain described here and the recently described KN400 strain of G. sulfurreducens (Yi et al., 2009) produce substantially more filaments than the DL-1 strain, coupled with the possibility that different strains may produce different proportions of various filaments that look similar, but have other dissimilar properties, indicates that mere visual observation is insufficient to provide information on the composition of G. sulfurreducens filaments. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy, Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC02-02ER63446, and Office of Naval Research Grant N00014-10-1-0084. Fig. S1.

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