2) Non-dippers tend to develop increased incidence of target org

2) Non-dippers tend to develop increased incidence of target organ damage and are known to have poorer prognosis, due to higher incidence of cardiovascular events.3),4) In non-dippers, it has been demonstrated that target organ damages are due to the absence of night-time BP dipping,

and are not the result of a higher overall BP Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical load.5) Natriuretic peptides were reported to correlate with left ventricular (LV) diastolic function.6) Hypertensive Gemcitabine manufacturer patients were reported to have increased levels of cardiac natriuretic hormones and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were correlated with both the LV and left atrial (LA) abnormalities.7) Similarly, non-dippers are known to have more increased levels of cardiac natriuretic hormones.8),9) During the cardiac cycle, the LA serves multiple functions, such as reservoir, conduit, active contractile chamber and suction source.10) It also modulates the LV filling through these Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical various mechanical functions. Strain and

strain rate are relatively newly introduced methods for myocardial function evaluation. Color Doppler tissue imaging (CDTI) can measure the strain and strain rate of the LA and its use in normal subjects has been validated.11) In many clinical conditions, including hypertension, diabetes and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical atrial fibrillation,12-15) CDTI is a useful tool to detect subclinical abnormalities of LA function. Previous studies showed that selleck chem Crenolanib diurnal fluctuation of BP could affect LA function, as evaluated by LA phasic volume.16) However, to the best of our knowledge, no study investigated to date the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical effect of diurnal fluctuation of BP on various LA functions by strain and strain rate using CDTI. It is also unknown whether the LA phasic functions could be affected when evaluated by deformation parameters, in a similar manner as in the case of volume parameters. Therefore, we investigated

whether there is difference in LA function by BP diurnal variation, evaluated by CDTI in never-treated arterial hypertensive patients. Methods Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Study groups We recruited the subjects from patients who visited the outpatient clinic in Bucheon St. Mary’s Hospital, Bucheon, South Korea for evaluation of the hypertension Batimastat and underwent ABP monitoring. A total of 40 patients, aged between 30 and 80 years, and suffering from essential hypertension diagnosed for the first time, were enrolled in this study. Out of 40 patients, 20 were dippers and 20 were non-dippers. None of the patients was receiving antihypertensive medication at the initiation of the study. Patients with any of the following were excluded from the study: history of myocardial infarction; diabetes mellitus or taking diabetes medication; significant valvular disease; history of atrial fibrillation or other significant arrhythmia; serum creatinine ≥ 1.3 mg/dL; creatinine clearance rate ≤ 60 mL/min; and global or segmental systolic dysfunction on echocardiographic examination.

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