Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were cut into 4 μm sections, drie

Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were cut into 4 μm sections, dried overnight at 37°C, and then deparaffinized with xylene and rehydrated in a graded ethanol series. Sections were treated with Dako target retrieval solution (Dako, Carpinteria, CA, USA) before antigen retrieval was done by heating at 95°C for 40 min.

Then the sections were cooled to room temperature, and were treated with dilute hydrogen peroxide to block endogenous peroxidase activity. Nonspecific binding was minimized by incubation with Dako protein block (Dako) for 30 min. Rabbit anti-human polyclonal antibodies for metastin (1–54)-Amide (catalogue number: H-048-59, Phoenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Burlingame, CA, USA) and GPR54 (375–398) (catalogue number: H-048-61, Phoenix Pharmaceuticals) were applied overnight at 4°C at a dilution of 1:400. On the next day, sections were incubated for 1 hr at room temperature selleck inhibitor with anti-rabbit IgG conjugated to a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) -labelled polymer (Dako Envision™ + System, Dako), treated with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB), and counterstained with Mayer’s hematoxylin. As a positive control, human

placental tissue was stained with the anti-metastin and anti-GPR54 antibodies (Figure 1A, 1B). For negative control slides, the primary buy Pictilisib antibody was substituted with irrelevant rabbit serum. Figure 1 Immunohistochemical staining Selleck MLN8237 of non-cancerous pancreatic tissues and pancreatic cancer tissues. (A, B); Immunohistochemical staining of human placental

tissues as a positive control. Tissues were stained with anti-metastin (A) and anti-GPR54 antibody (B). (Original magnification, × 200). (C, D); Non-cancerous and cancerous tissues were stained with anti-metastin and anti-GPR54 antibody. (Original magnification, × 400). Weak positivity of non-cancerous ductal cells for metastin (C) and GPR54 (D). (E, F); Pancreatic cancer tissues were stained with anti-metastin and anti-GPR54 antibody. Heterogeneous strong positive immunostaining of carcinoma cells for metastin (E) and GPR54 (F) are shown. Assessment of metastin and GPR54 expression Five fields (at a × 400 magnification) were randomly chosen to evaluate staining. The intensity of staining in cancer tissues was graded according to a 3-point scale as follows: 0 was weak; 1 was Thymidylate synthase mild (the same staining intensity as that of non-cancerous pancreatic ducts as an internal control on each slide); and 2 was strong. The percentage of tumor cells showing each staining intensity was estimated to calculate an intensity score ([0 × %weak] + [1 × %mild] + [2 × %strong]) that could range from 0 to 200. A score ≥ 100 was defined as positive staining and a score <100 was defined as negative staining. Then we compared clinicopathological characteristics between patients with positive and negative staining for metastin and GPR54.

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